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  • 長征11號成功發射什么情況 我國首次海上火箭發射取得圓滿成功
    2019-06-07 22:05:39  來源:網絡1589

    長征11號成功發射什么情況 我國首次海上火箭發射取得圓滿成功

    北京時間2019年6月5日上午今天12時06分,我國在黃海某海域從海上發射平臺,運用“長征11—WEY”運載火箭將七顆衛星同時發射升空,隨后,衛星順利進入預定的600公里高度圓軌道,我國首次海上火箭發射取得圓滿成功,中國航天再度填補了一項技術空白,收獲火箭發射新技能!

    長征11號成功發射什么情況 我國首次海上火箭發射取得圓滿成功

    擔當此次海上發射任務的長征11火箭是中國長征系列運載火箭家族中唯一一款固體運載火箭,由中國航天科技集團公司抓總研制。火箭起飛推力120噸,可將500公斤有效載荷輕松送入500公里太陽同步軌道。長征11運載火箭最大的亮點就是具備快速響應,無依托發射能力,能夠在極短的時間之內,在不預設發射場地的情況下,擇機選擇公路或是小場坪進行發射。天下武功無堅不破,唯快不破,長征11的這種“快打“能力使其一躍成為世界上發射準備周期最短的運載火箭之一。

    此次長征11運載火箭別出心裁采用的海上發射模式,是火箭陸上發射場發射、特種大型飛機平臺空中發射之外,又一種新穎且高效的發射方式。據有關專家介紹,通常認為,運載火箭海上發射具有以下二個獨特的優勢:

    第一,運載火箭海上發射更加靈活經濟。運用海上平臺發射火箭,能夠將運載火箭的發射場靈活地“搬運“到低緯度的赤道地區附近,最大限度地利用地球自轉的速度(地球在赤道上擁有最大的自轉線速度,約為465.1米/秒),將火箭自身的速度與地球自轉的速度疊加在一起,從而節省火箭燃料的消耗量,進一步提高了火箭的運載能力。同樣一枚火箭,如果放在赤道附近發射,就會比放在其他緯度地區發射擁有更強的運載能力,所以在赤道附近,長征“快遞”能夠運送的“貨物”更多,折算下來,單個“貨物”的“物流成本”就會降低。

    此外,運用海上發射靈活性特點,將火箭發射場搬到赤道附近海域,可以有效提升小傾角軌道衛星的使用壽命。例如發射軌道傾角為0°,軌道就在赤道平面上的地球靜止軌道衛星時,海上發射能夠減少因為衛星軌道傾角變化所消耗的燃料,從而顯著提升衛星的使用壽命。

    第二,運載火箭海上發射更加安全可靠。海上發射擁有一個陸上發射無可比擬的優勢,就是可以遠離人口稠密地區,減少火箭發射可能帶來的次生危害。火箭在內陸發射場發射,不可避免的會面臨火箭助推器、火箭一級,火箭整流罩等部件和碎片掉落的問題。在內陸航天發射場進行火箭發射,通常會事先規劃好火箭各分離部段的落區,然后組織落區內的群眾及時疏散,確保火箭發射不會對人類造成危害。但海上發射就可以有效降低這種風險的存在,海上發射能夠選擇廣袤無人的海域進行發射,減少因為火箭發射給人們日常生活帶來的影響。隨著我國商業航天的蓬勃發展,航天發射活動日益頻繁,據統計,未來十年國內商業小衛星發射需求約為1700顆,國外商業小衛星發射需求約為6200顆,海上發射不僅能開辟出新的不受限的發射場,有效緩解陸上發射場日益緊張的發射需求,其“副作用”小的優勢還變相降低了火箭發射的經濟成本和工作難度,解決了火箭航落區的安全性問題。

    由于海上發射具有諸多獨特優勢,所以國外的航天強國,大國很早就開始了運載火箭海上發射技術的相關研究與應用。早在上世紀60年代。意大利就在印度洋上建立了世界上首個移動式海上發射平臺——圣馬科發射平臺,該平臺1966年投入使用,曾用于美國"偵察兵"運載火箭的發射。圣馬科發射平臺的成功應用證明了火箭海上發射的可行性,也向世人展示了海上火箭發射靈活,經濟,適用性廣等優勢。

    而在上世紀九十年代,世界上迄今為止唯一一個能夠提供成熟海上發射服務的公司才組建運營。1995年,美國波音公司、挪威克瓦納海上鉆井平臺和船舶制造公司、烏克蘭南方設計局和俄羅斯航天業的巨頭能源火箭公司共同出資組建了海上發射公司。海上發射公司1999年3月成功發射了首枚運載火箭,隨后執行過幾次商業發射任務,但是成功率并不高,后來由于接連的發射失利以及債務問題于2009年6月宣布破產。雖然海上發射公司于2010年得以重組,但海上發射公司還是遭遇了重大的發射失敗,最終一蹶不振,于2014年暫停海上發射業務,并在2016年進行項目銷售談判。

    據相關專業研究機構數據統計,海上發射公司自1999年首飛開始至2014年暫停海上發射業務,共執行了36次發射任務,其中32次成功,1次部分成功,3次失敗,成功率為88.89%。

    通過國外海上發射發展的艱難歷程不難看出,盡管海外發射有其獨特的技術優勢,但也因其特殊的發射環境而具有相應的難度。例如,海上發射面臨風浪大等復雜海況,這勢必對海上發射平臺的穩定性要求更高,也要求運載火箭能夠應對海面晃動等特殊情況。而且由于火箭長時間處于海洋環境之中,海上潮濕、鹽霧的環境也會對運載火箭的元器件帶來影響,這就要求運載火箭必須具有更強的環境適應性。 此外,不同于陸上火箭發射場所擁有完善的配套設施,海上發射場身處大洋之中,各種補給能力有限,這就要求運載火箭從測試到發射整個流程更加簡潔高效,具備真正的無依托發射能力。

    此次“長征11—WEY”火箭雖然沒有選擇赤道地區進行發射,但任務的圓滿成功證明了長征11火箭完全具備在赤道地區進行海上發射的能力,也展示了長征11運載火箭,這款長征運載火箭家族中唯一的全固體運載火箭在商業航天發射市場中巨大的潛力,更好的環境適應性,更高效的發射模式,意味著長征11火箭能夠提供更低廉的發射費用和更可靠的發射服務。

    作為中國商業航天市場中的一枚“旗艦型”運載火箭,此次長征11運載火箭的海上發射還引入了更多的商業元素打造出了新穎的商業模式。經過中國航天基金會的“牽線搭橋“和包裝策劃,長征11運載火箭開中國航天之先河,與中國自主高端汽車品牌WEY展開合作,以冠名的形式助力中國首次海上發射任務,長城WEY還將與中國航天圍繞清潔能源、自主駕駛、移動物聯網等新興技術共同建立創新研究院。兩大民族高科技企業之間的”強強聯合“,既表明中國航天開始以更加開放的心態運用航天技術與資源服務民生產業的建設,也表明有更多的資金、人才等要素愿意投入中國商業航天市場,創造商業航天更大的市場機遇和經濟價值。

    相信未來,會有更多企業愿意加入中國航天事業合作伙伴的隊伍,學習中國航天的發展哲學,意識到扎實地推進自主創新能夠給企業帶來更頑強的生命力和更廣闊的發展空間,以共享普惠的理念,助力航天,造福人民,讓更多的航天高科技走入尋常百姓家,以豐富的生活體驗去感受航天高科技的魅力。

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