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  • 世界首個無角牦牛 阿什旦”牦牛培育成功 無角牦牛“能量非凡”
    2019-07-05 16:01:22  來源:網絡1605

    世界首個無角牦牛 阿什旦”牦牛培育成功 無角牦牛“能量非凡”

    世界首個無角牦牛培育成功 為什么要培育無角牦牛?

    牦牛沒有了“靈魂觸角”會怎樣?近日,“世界牦牛之都”的青藏高原青海省又干了一件“牛”事,經過20余年科研攻關和自主創新,由中國農業科學院蘭州畜牧與獸藥研究所、青海省大通種牛場共同培育的世界上首個無角牦牛——“阿什旦”牦牛培育成功。

    牦牛,了解一下

    牦牛原是我國青藏高原一帶的特產動物,是典型的高寒動物,性極耐寒。原始牦牛在距今三百多萬年前的更新世生存,廣布于歐亞大陸東北部。后來,由于地殼運動、氣候變遷而南移至中國青藏高原地區,并適應高寒氣候而延續下來,演化為現代牦牛。

    牦牛渾身都是寶,肉質蛋白高,精肉多,野味濃,其毛纖維細長,質地柔韌,牧民用來編織小帳房,冬暖夏涼,避風防水,經久耐用,其牛絨綿柔舒適,可供高檔毛料。其皮可制精美皮革,富有光澤,質料考究,為皮革中上等佳品。其骨熬制骨膠,透明剔亮,粘性強而用途廣。

    牦牛絕非普通黃牛、奶牛,一頭成年公牦牛體重可達440公斤,體軀高大、毛發不僅锃亮,且長度幾乎垂地。

    統計顯示,全世界現有牦牛近1600萬頭,其中中國有1500余萬頭,是世界上擁有牦牛數量和品種類群最多的國家,約占世界牦牛總數的95%以上。

    中國是世界牦牛的發源地,全世界90%的牦牛生活在中國青藏高原及毗鄰的6個省區。青海省總面積72萬平方公里,海拔3000米以上的牧區占該省總面積的96%,天然草地面積5。47億畝,其中存欄牦牛480。97萬頭,占世界牦牛的32%,居全國首位。

    為什么要培育無角牦牛

    培育無角家畜品種系全球各國家畜繁育改良工作“熱點”,馳名世界的有蘇格蘭安格斯牛、美國無角短角牛等。有人不禁要問了,“沒有角的牦牛還有靈魂嗎?”

    中國農業科學院蘭州畜牧與獸藥研究所副所長、牦牛資源與育種創新團隊首席閻萍介紹,隨著傳統飼養方式多元化,有角牦牛在規模化和集約化飼養中暴露出相互傷害、不易采食、破壞圈舍等弊端。

    還別不信,在青海大通種牛場,世界上塊頭最大的一頭1190公斤的牦牛曾與同伴發生“斗毆事件”,于2017年不幸身亡。

    為進一步豐富和發展良種牦牛體系,青海省大通種牛場與中國農科院蘭州畜牧與獸藥研究所于1993年開展了無角牦牛新品種培育工作,經過20多年的不懈努力,育成了產肉性能優良的“阿什旦”牦牛,2019年4月28日,農業農村部批準該品種為國家級新品種,是繼“大通牦牛”之后世界第二個人工培育的牦牛新品種。

    “阿什旦”牦牛相較其他牦牛品種,性情溫順、不容易打斗、易飼養、易管理,在自然減少受傷率的同時可以增加飼養密度,便于進行舍飼。新品種遺傳基礎和體型外貌特征均與中國目前現有的17個牦牛地方品種有明顯區別。

    “阿什旦”牦牛的育成,對青藏高原牦牛規模化集約化標準化養殖,滿足我國牦牛品種多元化的需求,充分利用青藏高原高寒半農半牧區的飼草料資源,加快牦牛產業增效牧業增產牧民增收,均具有十分重要的意義。其填補了牦牛以無角舍飼化為主體品種的空白,標志著我國在大動物育種方面再次取得了突破性進展。

    世界首個無角牦牛

    培育技術創新亮點頻現

    青海省大通種牛場副場長保廣才接受科技日報記者采訪時表示,“阿什旦”牦牛新品種滿足了我國牦牛養殖多元化的需求,為牦牛規模化、集約化和標準化飼養提供了差異化品種。其生產性能和綜合品質達到了國際同類型生態區牦牛的領先水平,引領了我國青藏高原牦牛品種生態差異化的育種方向,為世界獨特生態區牦牛品種培育提供了成功典范,充分展現了我國在牦牛遺傳育種學科方向的國際領先地位。

    據悉,“阿什旦”牦牛的培育技術突破了分子標記輔助選擇鑒定角性狀變異位點的技術瓶頸,首次系統開展了牦牛角發育的形態學和組織學研究。通過鑒定P1ID和P219ID位點基因型對牦牛角性狀進行早期選擇,縮短了育種周期,提高了育種效率,加速了育種進程,其育種技術居國內外領先水平。

    此外,青海省大通種牛場建立了開放式核心群育種體系和種公牛站、育種核心群、育種群、推廣示范區四級繁育體系,邊育種邊示范邊推廣,加快了種牛遺傳評估和遺傳交換,對我國牦牛良種制種、供種體系建設和牦牛飼養方式的轉變具有重要的現實意義。

    無角牦牛“能量非凡”

    青藏高原是世界上海拔最高的高原,有“世界屋脊”“地球第三極”“亞洲水塔”之稱,生態環境十分重要。“阿什旦”牦牛則解決了牦牛養殖長期依賴天然草地分散放牧,生產方式單一,產業整體規模化、集約化、標準化程度低,生產效率較低,市場競爭力較弱的問題。突破了傳統的放牧養殖模式季節狀況,完善了青藏高原高寒牧區放牧、放牧加補飼及完全舍飼化等不同牦牛養殖的結構,提升了青藏高原寒旱生態區牦牛產業發展水平。

    保廣才還介紹,“阿什旦”牦牛產肉性能好,抗逆性強,繁殖性能高,經濟效益高,便于集約化養殖,深受牧民群眾歡迎。培育期間,向青海、甘肅等省區中試推廣種公牛3950頭,改良當地牦牛。改良后裔在同等飼養條件下,平均繁活率為59。98%,比當地牦牛提高11。72個百分點;死亡率為1。24%,比當地降低4。32個百分點;18月齡體重平均為92。77kg,比當地同齡牦牛高18。38kg,提高了24。71%,增產增效十分顯著。

    藏族人民生活離不開牦牛,牦牛是高原人民的重要生活和經濟來源。“阿什旦”牦牛還將對助力民族地區脫貧攻堅、支撐鄉村振興發揮重要作用。

    世界首個無角牦牛

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